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Democratic Reform

The Higher Degrees

The higher degrees of the Scottish Rite are the twenty nine degrees above the Blue degrees, and are divided into four bodies: ‘Lodge of Perfection’, ‘Chapter of the Rose Croix’, the ‘Council of Kadosh’ and the ‘Consistory’. These degrees are not memorised like the first degrees, but exemplified in dramas, which the mason watches. If the degree is simply explained and not dramatised, it is said to be communicated.

The thirteenth degree is called the 'Royal Arch' degree, and the mason who takes the degree (known as the ‘Ritual of Exaltation’) is threatened with having the top of his skull sliced off, his head cut off and his brains exposed to the burning rays of the sun, if he ever reveals its secrets.

So what exactly is the sacred secret of the Royal Arch degree? The so called long lost secrets of masonry are the hidden names, Jehovah and Jahbulon.

These secrets earn the mason exaltation to the rank of Companion. He is also told that the secrets he learned in the first three degrees are substitute secrets, and not the 'genuine' secrets.

Most masons never progress beyond the first three degrees, so in essence they never discover that they have been mislead and lied to.

Also, it is claimed that a master mason’s lodge and a chapter of Royal Arch masons are two distinct bodies.

The name 'Jahbulon' represents a trinity god being, comprising three different deities, or gods, namely Jah, Bul and On. Jah is said to represent the Hebrew biblical God Yahweh, Bul is the demon Baal, and On represents the Egyptian god of the underworld, Osiris. It is notable also that the Masonic temple  / Christian chapel hybrid building at Rosslyn, and many cathedrals around Europe incorporate demon like gargoyle structures that poke out of the walls of the structures, and in the case of Rosslyn are placed over the doorway to two entrances.

Higher level masons are also given the opportunity to join the 'Shriners'. The Shrine is the 'Ancient Arabic order, Nobles of the Mystic Shrine.'

Distasteful games called 'hazing' accompany initiations, and often involve heavy drinking. In fact many of the Masonic and associated gatherings involve heavy drinking.

One ex thirty third degree mason describes these games. 'At one point we were placed in a large mesh cage, and one of the Shriners climbed on top of it. He exposed a very convincing rubber penis which was connected to a concealed water bag, and hosed down all of us to the delighted howls of the onlookers.'

Before a mason can be considered for the thirty third degree, he must have been a 'Knight Commander of the Court of Honour' for at least four years.

Jim Shaw, who was given this degree before resigning from the masons, had to go to Washington D.C. where the ritual was held. This took place at the House of the Temple on Northwest Sixteenth street, and when he arrived he was informed that he had to give a minimum donation before taking the degree, and this was for a 'very large' but unspecified amount of money.

An odd part of the questioning for the thirty third degree provides more evidence of the satanic nature of Freemasonry. Jim Shaw was asked, 'Of what religion are you?' He replied, 'a Christian.' Another person there for the same degree was asked whether he was a Christian, and he replied, 'Hell no, and I never intend to be!'

The questioners responded that he would be 'going higher', and he left through a different door.

The thirty second degree uses an upside down human skull with wine in it, and the following oath is said. 'May this wine I now drink become a deadly poison to me as the hemlock juice drunk by Socrates, should I ever knowingly or wilfully violate the same.'

A mason dressed as a skeleton then jumps out of the darkness and throws his arms around the candidate.

The oath continues, 'And may these cold arms forever encircle me should I ever knowingly or wilfully violate the same.'

The Sovereign Grand Commander closes the meeting with the 'mystic number', by striking with his sword five, three, one and two times.

The ex mason lists the people taking the degree: A Scandinavian king, two former presidents of America, an internationally prominent evangelist, two other prominent clergymen and a very high official of the federal government. The title of the degree is, 'Grand Inspector General’.

The presence of the religious men is interesting, and it shows what a sham and scam born again Christianity can become, when large numbers of vulnerable people are lured into the church, pressured into giving money to ‘God’, which ends up in the pockets of the born again leaders who live a life of luxury.

What happened to feeding the poor, and giving everything away to follow Jesus? Many of these 'leaders' are nothing but charlatans, who deceive, cheat and lie in typical Masonic fashion.

The ex mason also describes a ceremony called ‘Maundy Thursday’, the Thursday before Easter.

'Dressed in long, black, hooded robes, we marched in single file with only our faces partly showing. There was something very tomb like about the setting, and the silence was only broken by the organ playing mournfully in the background. The setting was dark, our long sweeping robes were solid black, our faces nearly concealed in the hoods and the mood was one of heavy gloom.

The Christ less prayers and the hymns we sang fitted right in, and the one word that would describe the entire event would be black. It was indeed a black communion; a strange black mass.. I was choking on the awful reality of what we had said and done, the way we had blasphemed the Lord, and the evil, black mockery we had made of his pure and selfless death.'

Re' the title, 'The Ancient and Accepted Scottish rite of Freemasonry,' the ex mason says, 'It isn't ancient, it isn't Scottish, it isn't free and it isn't right.'

Once a person becomes a mason, they are a mason for life and the oaths are deemed unbreakable.

Masons will lie to protect the 'secrets' of the lodge, including those of fellow masons it appears. They will conceal crimes if necessary, since secrecy is the essence of Freemasonry.

'Secrecy is indispensable in a mason of whatever degree.' (Albert Pike, Morals and Dogma, P 109, fourth degree). 'If divested of its secret character, it would lose its identity and would cease to be Freemasonry.. death of the order would follow its legalised exposure.’

Freemasonry is a deceptive instrument; a promise that never delivers. '.. it is one of the most abstruse doctrines of the science of Masonic symbolism that the mason is ever to be in search of truth, but is never to find it.' (Albert Mackey, 'Manual of the lodge'). 'You have reached the mountain peak of Masonic instruction, a peak covered with mist...' (Lecture of the thirty second degree, Scottish rite).

A stated aim of masonry is to gain more and more light as you advance higher in the degrees. It is the ultimate irony that at the very pinnacle of the order, when the mason having paid all that money and given so much of his time, cannot see ‘the light’ in all its blazing glory, due to bad weather conditions on top of the mountain!

Freemasonry at the higher levels is only for the elite few. Women (excluded from all male lodges), black people and disabled people are all excluded.  The poor are excluded because of the fees due, and the disabled can't see or hear the signs and symbols.

Note, women can join Freemasonry through women only lodges, such as the Order of the Eastern Star, the Order of the Amaranth, the White Shrine of Jerusalem, the Social Order of Beauceant and the Daughters of the Nile.

In the higher degrees, it becomes apparent that the Masonic god is Lucifer, the devil (literally ‘of evil’) of the Christian Bible. Masons have argued that Baal simply means 'Lord.' The accepted meaning of the word Baal is that it represents a demon god that the Israelites of the Bible were specifically forbidden to worship. The other accepted translation of Baal is Satan, or the devil himself. In the Bible, which is often placed at the centre of a Masonic lodge, Baal is associated with idolatry, false gods and disobedience. This is further evidence that Freemasonry is a satanic religion.


In the first degree ritual, the candidate is described as a 'poor candidate in a state of darkness'. He is asked what it is he seeks, and he must reply, 'light'. Little does he know, that the 'light’ is revealed in higher degrees as the light of Lucifer or Venus, a symbol of Satan or the devil in his pre fall state, before he challenged the authority of Adonai, (the God of the Bible, the creator of all things) and was cast out of heaven into hell.

The eighteenth degree is equally, if not more sinister, and was investigated by Walton Hannah in the 1950's who concluded, 'The initiate gives his age as thirty three, and travels for thirty three days in concentric circles representing the seven periods of the world's existence. He impersonates Christ in achieving enlightenment not through salvation, but through his own efforts. He passes through the blackness of death to his resurrection in the Red room, and hears the description of Jesus’ sacrificial death on the cross, and redemption for all mankind as a dire calamity for Freemasonry!' It is implied that Satan's death is being mourned, and the conclusion is that Freemasonry is an anti Christ B.C. religion, totally rejecting the Christian faith. This is consistent with the beliefs the Knight’s Templar developed in their rituals.

Some commentators have suggested that Hiram Abiff represents Osiris, another symbol for the sun, and that Freemasonry is a sun religion. We would sever any links to ancient Egypt, and maintain that the bulk of the ritualistic nonsense is a mishmash of Knights Templar rituals rewritten by the eighteenth century founder of modern day Freemasonry, Dr James Anderson. Yes, the ‘light’ in the ancient Egyptian religions was the light of the sun, but the light in Masonic rituals is Venus, the antithesis of the sun. Hence the term ‘anti Christ religion’.

To provide some relevant background, Osiris formed the centre point of the ancient Egyptian religions, and was said to represent the sun. His son, Horus defeated his evil uncle Seth, and Horus's story closely mirrors the story of Jesus. Indeed, pictures of Isis and the infant Horus are very similar to pictures of Jesus and Mary. The Egyptian mystery schools also worshiped Ra, who was another representation of the sun, along with Amun and Ahten, all variations of the sun.

They acknowledged the power the sun provides as a vital life giving force. Hence the obelisk was essentially a phallic symbol, a symbolic of the regenerative life giving force of fertility. They also acknowledged the importance of sound as a healing and illuminating force from the time of Akhenaten. There was nothing satanic or demonic in these schools, and attempts by masons to claim descent from these times is nonsense. Rosicrucianism is the closest modern day society to these schools, and it is fundamentally different from Freemasonry. We know because we have access to original Rosicrucian rituals.

In trying to claim ancient links to these religions and schools, Freemasonry seems to be trying to deceive its members and the world into thinking that its members are part of some ancient order that stretches back to the dawn of time and civilisation. The truth is that Freemasonry is a perversion of the ancient religions, since masons do not worship the sun, but have changed the 'light' into Venus, which represents Lucifer. They essentially worship Satan, the enemy of God, although they obscure this fact through lies, deceit and misdirection.

On the theme of politics and Freemasonry, there is a clear link between Freemasonry and the French revolution. The motto of the revolution was explicitly Masonic: 'Liberté, egalité, fraternité'. In the USA where the constitution was also notably Masonic, it is interesting to note the absence of the word equality.

It was the French incidentally who were in charge of the U N peacekeeping force in Rwanda during the mid 1990's, when they allowed the massacre of around one million Tootsies by the stronger Hutu's. Most of the Tootsies were killed with machetes, and they included women and children killed in broad daylight. The French decided not to intervene in the mass genocide that took place. To us that atrocity was nothing less than human culling. Links:

A leading city financier described his initiation into Freemasonry in 1970. He described the pain of having a compass point shoved against his chest, and described how he had to kiss the Bible, and described the sexual overtones of having his face thrust into the compass and square which were arranged into a vesica piscis. He summed up the whole ceremony as an experience with intense evil overtones, causing him severe headaches and recurring illness.

We have known and had to work with many masons and Masonic organisations. By ‘Masonic organisation’, we mean an organisation where most staff are not masons, but where the staff in charge are masons. They set the tone for the whole organisation, and if you are not their ‘type’, you don’t get promoted, and / or are forced out. Typically staff in these organisations suffer from stress, depression and illness. It is not surprising when you understand that the root of many illnesses is low, fear based vibrations, stress and imbalance; the very things a mason is initiated into.

Relationships fail and affairs are rife. Freemasonry is not based on love, but on sex, greed, repression and control. To any decent human being, Freemasonry is repellent.

There are many ways of creating order. You can create it out of mutual respect and love, or fear and intimidation. Masons choose the latter, the coward's way out. In a relationship, it is easy to try and control a partner through fear and threats, but more noble and lasting if a relationship flourishes through respect and love.

Excerpts from the Higher Degrees

The fourth degree is called the Mark Master’s degree. The password is ‘Joppa‘ and also ‘Mark well’. The penalty of an impostor is to have his right hand and right ear chopped off.

The Past Master’s degree

‘Furthermore do I promise and swear that the secrets of a brother of this degree, delivered to me in charge as such, shall remain as secure and inviolable in my breast as they were in his own, before communicated to me, murder and treason excepted, and those left to my own election.’

Comment. These oaths pose a huge threat of corruption.

‘All which I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, with a fixed and steady purpose of mind, to keep and perform the same, binding myself under no less penalty than to have my tongue split from tip to root, that I might forever thereafter be unable to pronounce the word, if ever I should prove wilfully guilty of violating any part of this my solemn oath or obligation of a Past Master mason. So help me God, and make me steadfast to keep and perform the same.’

The password is ‘Giblem’.

Most Excellent Master’s degree

The Tyler's job is described as keeping away cowans and eavesdroppers.

The members join hands, and raise them up and down in unison. This is called ‘balancing’.

The password ‘Rabboni’ is given in a whisper or a low voice. The sign is given by placing your hands, one on each breast, the fingers meeting in the centre of the body, and jerking them apart as though you were trying to tear open your breast; it alludes to the penalty of the obligation.

The grip is given by taking each other by the right hand, and clasping them so that each compresses the third finger of the other with his thumb. (If one hand is large and the other small, they cannot both give the grip at the same time). It is called the grip of all grips, because it is said to cover all the preceding grips.

Royal Arch degree

Bodies of Royal Arch masons are called chapters, and members of chapters who have received the Royal Arch degree refer to each other as companions. If they have not received the degree, they are referred to as brothers. The requisite number to confer the degree is called a ‘team’.

The stages of exaltation. Every chapter must consist of a high priest, king scribe, captain of the host, principal sojourner, royal arch captain, three grand masters of the veils, treasurer and secretary. Companions are clothed with scarlet aprons and sashes.

When conferring degrees, the high priest presides as master, the king as senior warden, the scribe as junior warden, the captain of the host as marshal, or master of ceremonies, the principal sojourner as senior deacon, the Royal Arch captain as junior deacon, the master of the first, second, and third veils as junior, senior, and master overseers and the treasurer, secretary and Tyler as officers of corresponding rank. The chapter is authorised to confer the degrees by a charter, or warrant from a grand chapter.

Before proceeding with the ritual, the high priest ensures that the chapter is tyled. I.e. secured from any eavesdroppers or cowans (intruders).

An excerpt from II Thessalonians is read, although reference to the name ‘Jesus’ is omitted.

Comment. Note the similarity here with the Knights Templar who secretly rejected the figure of Jesus and the central message of the Christian Bible.

After joining hands and ‘balancing’, groups of three are formed, and after they have joined hands they repeat these lines in concert, and at the close of each line raise their hands above their heads and say, ‘As we three did agree, the sacred word to keep, and as we three did agree, the sacred word to search, so we three do agree to raise this Royal Arch.’

At the close of the last line they keep their hands raised, while they incline their heads under them, and the first whispers in the ear of the second the syllable, J A H, the second to the third, B U H, and the third to the first, L U N. The second then commences, and it goes around again in the same manner, then the third, so that each companion pronounces each syllable of the word.

They then separate, each repairing to his station, and the high priest declares the chapter opened.

After the chapter is opened, the ritual begins.

The lecture of the Royal Arch degree is divided into two sections. The first section designates the appellation, number and station of the several officers, and points out the purpose and duties of their respective stations.

Question. Are you a Royal Arch mason? Answer. I am that I am.

Q. How shall I know you to be a Royal Arch mason? A. By three times three.

Q. Where were you made a Royal Arch mason? A. In a just and lawfully constituted chapter of Royal Arch masons, consisting of most excellent, high priest, king and scribe, captain of the host, principal sojourner, Royal Arch captain and the three grand masters of the veils, assembled in a room or place representing the tabernacle erected by our ancient brethren near the ruins of King Solomon's temple.

Q. Where is the high priest stationed and what are his duties? A. He is stationed in the sanctum sanctorum. His duty with the king and scribe, to sit in the grand council, to form plans and give directions to the workmen.

Q. The king's station and duty? A. At the right hand of the high priest, to aid him by his advice and council and in his absence to preside.

Q. The scribe's station and duty? A. At the left hand of the high priest, to assist him and the king in the discharge of their duties and to preside in their absence.

Q. The captain of the host's station and duty? A. At the right hand of the grand council, and to receive their orders and see them duly executed.

Q. The principal sojourner's station and duty? A. At the left hand of the grand council, to bring the blind by a way that they know not, to lead them in paths they have not known, to make darkness light before them and crooked things straight.

Q. The Royal Arch captain's station and duty? A. At the inner veil, or entrance of the sanctum sanctorium, to guard the same, and see that none pass but such as are duly qualified, and have the proper passwords and signets of truth.

Q. What is the colour of his banner? A. White, and is emblematic of that purity of heart and rectitude of conduct, which is essential to obtain admission into the divine sanctum sanctorum above.

Q. The stations and duties of the three grand masters of the veils? A. At the entrance of their respective veils; to guard the same, and see that none pass but such as are duly qualified and in possession of the proper passwords and tokens.

Q. What are the colours of their banners? A. That of the third, scarlet, which is emblematic of fervency and zeal, and the appropriate colour of the Royal Arch degree. It admonishes us to be fervent in the exercise of our devotions to God, and zealous in our endeavours to promote the happiness of men.

Of the second, purple, which being produced by a due mixture of blue and scarlet, the former of which is the characteristic colour of the symbolic, or three first degrees, and the latter that of the Royal Arch degree is an emblem of union, and is the characteristic colour of the intermediate degrees. It teaches us to cultivate and improve that spirit of harmony between the brethren of the symbolic degrees and the companions of the sublime degrees, which should ever distinguish the members of a society founded upon the principles of everlasting truth and universal philanthropy.

Of the first, blue, the peculiar colour of the three ancient or symbolic degrees. It is an emblem of universal friendship and benevolence, and instructs us that in the mind of a mason those virtues should be as expansive as the blue arch of heaven itself.

Q. The treasurer's station and duty? A. At the right hand of the captain of the host. His duty to keep a just and regular account of all the property and funds of the chapter placed in his hands, and exhibit them to the chapter when called upon for that purpose.

Q. The secretary's place in the chapter? A. At the left of the principal sojourner. His duty to issue the orders and notifications of his superior officers, record the proceedings of the chapter proper to be written, to receive all monies due to the chapter and pay them over to the treasurer.

Q. Tyler's place and duty? A. His station is at the outer avenue of the chapter, his duty to guard against the approach of cowans and eavesdroppers, and suffer none to pass or repass but such as are duly qualified.

Q. Have you that obligation? A. I have.

Q. Will you give it me?

A. ‘I, A. B., of my own free will and accord, in the presence of almighty God, and this chapter of Royal Arch masons, erected to God and dedicated to the holy order of St. John, do hereby and hereon most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, in addition to my former obligations, that I will not give the degree of Royal Arch mason to anyone of an inferior degree, nor to any other being in the known world, except it be to a true and lawful companion Royal Arch mason, or within the body of a just and legally constituted chapter of such, and not unto him or unto them whom I shall hear so to be, but unto him or them only whom I shall find so to be, after strict trial, due examination, or legal information received.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not give the grand omnific Royal Arch word, which I shall hereafter receive, neither in the chapter nor out of it, except there be present two companions, Royal Arch masons, who with myself make three, and then by three times three under a living arch, not above my breath.

Furthermore, that I will not reveal the ineffable characters belonging to this degree, or retain the key to them in my possession, but destroy it whenever it comes to my sight.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not wrong this chapter, nor a companion of this degree to the value of anything, knowingly myself, nor suffer it to be done by others, if in my power to prevent it.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not be at the exaltation of a candidate to this degree, at a clandestine chapter, I knowing it to be such.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not assist, or be present at the exaltation of a candidate to this degree, who has not regularly received the degrees of entered apprentice, fellow craft, master mason, mark master, past master, most excellent master, to the best of my knowledge and belief.

Furthermore, that I will not assist or see more or less than three candidates exalted at one and the same time.

Furthermore, that I will not assist or be present at the forming or opening of a Royal Arch chapter, unless there be present nine regular Royal Arch masons.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear, that I will not speak evil of a companion Royal Arch mason, neither behind his back nor before his face, but will apprise him of approaching danger, if in my power.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will not strike a companion Royal Arch mason in anger, so as to draw his blood.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will support the constitution of the General Grand Royal Arch chapter of .. (country name), also the constitution of the Grand Royal Arch chapter of the state under which this chapter is held, and conform to all the by-laws, rules and regulations of this or any other chapter of which I may hereafter become a member.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will obey all regular signs, summons, or tokens given, handed, sent, or thrown to me from the hand of a companion Royal Arch mason, or from the body of a just and lawfully constituted chapter of such, provided it be within the length of my cable -tow.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will aid and assist a companion Royal Arch mason when engaged in any difficulty, and espouse his cause, so far as to extricate him from the same, if in my power, whether he be right or wrong. Also that I will promote a companion Royal Arch mason's political preferment in preference to another of equal qualifications.

Comment. The moment an organisation that uses threats of violence enters the realm of politics, it qualifies as a terrorist organisation.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that a companion Royal Arch mason's secrets, given to me in charge as such, and I knowing them to be such, shall remain as secure and inviolable in my breast as in his own, murder and treason not excepted.

Furthermore, do I promise and swear that I will be aiding and assisting all poor and indigent Royal Arch masons, their widows and orphans, wherever dispersed around the globe, so far as in my power without material injury to myself or family. All which I do most solemnly and sincerely promise and swear, with a firm and steadfast resolution to perform the same, without any equivocation, mental reservation, or self evasion of mind in me whatever. Binding myself under no less penalty than that of having my skull smote off, and my brains exposed to the scorching rays of the sun, should I ever knowingly or wilfully violate or transgress any part of this my solemn oath or obligation of a Royal Arch mason. So help me God, and keep me steadfast in the performance of the same.’

‘I am that I am’ is a password of the degree.

The passes and tokens include: ‘Shem, Ham and Japheth,’ ‘Shem, Japhtheh and Adoniram,’ and ‘Japheth, Shem and Noah.’

Q. What did the high priest further demand of you? A. The signs from entered apprentice to most excellent master in succession.

Q. What did he then say to you? A. He said we were truly three worthy most excellent masters, commended us for our zeal and disinterestedness, and asked what part of the work we were willing to undertake.

Q. Your answer? A. That we were willing to undertake any service, however servile or dangerous, for the sake of forwarding so great and noble an undertaking.

Q. What followed? A. We were then furnished with a pick-axe, spade and crow, and were directed to repair to the northwest corner of the ruins of the old temple and commence removing the rubbish, to lay the foundation of the new, and to observe and preserve everything of importance and report to the Grand Council.

We accordingly repaired to the place, and after labouring several days we discovered what seemed a rock, but on striking it with the crow it gave a hollow sound, and upon closer examination we discovered in it an iron ring by help of which we succeeded in removing it from its place, when we found it to be the keystone of an arch, and through the aperture there appeared to be an immense vault curiously arched. We then took the stone and repaired to the Grand Council, and presented it for their inspection.

He then informed us that the name of Deity, the divine logos or word, to which reference is made in John 1, 1-5. "In the beginning was the word, and the word was with God, and the word was God, the same was in the beginning with God, all things were made by him, and without him was not anything made that was made. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness comprehendeth it not."

That this logos or word was anciently written only in these sacred characters, and thus preserved from one generation to another. That this was the true Masonic word, which was lost in the death of Hiram Abiff, and was restored at the rebuilding of the temple, in the manner we had at that time assisted to represent.

Q. What followed? A. We were reminded of the manner in which we were sworn to give the Royal Arch word, were instructed in the manner, and finally invested with the all important word in due form.

Q. What is the grand Royal Arch word? A. JAH BUH LUN.

Comment. It is also given as JAH BUL ON in other documents we have studied.

Q. How is it to be given? A. Under a living arch by three times three, in low breath (see description of opening a Chapter).

Q. What followed? A. We were presented with the signs belonging to this degree.

Q. Will you give me those signs? Answered by giving the signs thus: Raise the right hand to the forehead, the hand and arm horizontal, thumb towards the forehead, draw it briskly across the forehead, and drop it perpendicularly by the side.

This constitutes the due guard of this degree, and refers to the penalty of the obligation.

The grand sign is made by locking the fingers of both hands together, and carrying them to the top of the head, the palms upward, alluding to the manner in which the brother who descended into the vault and found the ark, found his hands involuntarily placed to protect his head from the potent rays of the meridian sun.

Q. What followed. A. The high priest then placed crowns upon our heads, and told us that we were now invested with all the important secrets of this degree, and crowned and received as worthy companions, Royal Arch masons.

He then gives the charge.

The second section of the lecture on this degree states minutely the ceremonies and forms of exaltation (as the conferring of this degree is styled), but there seems to be some parts which require explanation.

The principal sojourner conducts the candidate, and is considered as representing Moses conducting the children of Israel through the wilderness. He is usually dressed to represent an old man, bowed with age with a mask on his face, and long beard hanging down upon his breast.

He is introduced to the candidate in the preparation room by the name of Moses. On entering the chapter, the candidates are received under a ‘living arch’, that is the companions arrange themselves in a line on each side of the door, and each joins hands with the one opposite to himself.

The candidates entering, the conductor says, "Stoop low, brothers! We are about to enter the arches; remember that he that humbleth himself shall be exalted; stoop low, brothers.."

Knights of the Red Cross degree

This countersign is given like the Jewish, excepting this variation, it is given over instead of under the arch of steel. The words are Tatnai Shethar-Boznai, Enavdai.

Q. Who were they? A. They were governors of Persian provinces, and enemies of the Jews.

Q. What followed? A. The sovereign master then invested me with the red cross word.

Q. Give it? A. Each placing his left hand upon the other's right shoulder, at the same time bringing the point of the swords to each other's left side, in which position the word Libertas is given.

Q. What followed? A. The sovereign master then invested me with the grand sign, grip and word of Knight of the Red Cross.

Q. Give them. A. The grand sign is given by bringing the thumb and finger of the left hand to the mouth, and carrying it off in an oblique direction; the grip is given by interlacing the fingers of the left hand; the word is Veritas.

The sign, grip and word are given under the arch of steel.

Knight Templar and Knight of Malta

Q. What is a constitutional number? A. Seven, nine, eleven, or more.

Q. When composed of eleven, of whom does it consist? A. Warden, sword-bearer, standard-bearer, recorder, treasurer, junior warden, senior warden, prelate, captain-general, generalissimo and grand commander.

Q. Warden's station? A. On the left of the standard-bearer in the west, and on the left of the third division.

Q. His duty? A. To observe the orders and directions of the grand commander; to see that the sentinels are at their respective posts, and that the encampment is duly guarded.

Q. Sword-bearer's station? A. On the right of the standard-bearer in the west, and on the right of the third division.

Q. His duty? A. To assist in the protection of the banners of our order; to watch all signals from the grand commander, and see his orders duly executed.

Q. Standard-bearer's station in the encampment? A. In the west, and in the centre of the third division.

Q. His duty? A. To display, support, and protect the banners of our order.

Q. Why is the standard-bearer's station in the west? A. That the brilliant rays of the rising sun, shedding their lustre upon the banners of our order, may encourage and animate all true and courteous knights, and dismay and confound their enemies.

Q. Recorder's station in the encampment? A. In front of the captain-general.

Q. His duty? A. To observe with attention the order of the encampment; keep a just and regular record of the same; collect the revenue, and pay the same over to the treasurer.

Q. Treasurer's station in the encampment? A. In front of the generalissimo.

Q. His duty? A. To receive in charge all funds and property of the encampment; pay all orders drawn upon him, and render a just and faithful account when required.

Q. Station of the junior warden in the encampment? A. At the southwest angle of the triangle, and on the left of the first division.

Q. His duty? A. To attend to all poor and weary pilgrims travelling from afar; to accompany them on the journey; answer all questions for them, and finally introduce them into the asylum.

Q. Senior warden's station in the encampment? A. At the northwest angle of the triangle, and on the right of the second division.

Q. His duty there? A. To attend on pilgrim warriors travelling from afar; to comfort and support pilgrims penitent, and after due trial, to recommend them to the hospitality of the generalissimo.

Q. Prelate's station in the encampment? A. On the right of the generalissimo.

Q. His duty there? A. To administer at the altar, and offer up prayers and adorations to the deity.

Q. Captain-general's station? A. On the left of the grand commander.

Q. His duty? A. To see that the proper officers make all suitable preparations for the several meetings of the encampment, and take special care that the asylum is in a suitable array for the introduction of candidates and dispatch of business; also to receive and communicate all orders from the grand commander to officers of the line.

Q. Generalissimo's station? A. On the right of the grand commander.

Q. His duty? A. To receive and communicate all orders, signals, and petitions, and assist the grand commander in the discharge of his various duties, and in his absence to govern the encampment.

Q. Grand commander's station? A. In the east.

Q. His duty? A. To distribute alms, and protect weary pilgrims travelling from afar; to encourage pilgrim warriors, to sustain pilgrims penitent, feed the hungry, clothe the naked, bind up the wounds of the afflicted; to inculcate hospitality, and govern his encampment with justice and moderation.

The oath is taken, ‘binding myself under no less penalty than to have my head struck off and placed on the highest spire in Christendom, should I knowingly or wilfully violate any part of this my solemn obligation of a Knight Templar; so help me God, and keep me steadfast to perform and keep the same.’

The password is Mahershalal-Hashbaz, and is given under the arch of steel.

A. The Most Excellent Prelate then reads a lesson relative to the apostasy of Judas Iscariot. (See Templar's Chart.)

Q. What followed? A. The grand commander then addressed me, ‘Pilgrim, the twelve tapers you see around the triangle, correspond in number with the disciples of our saviour while on earth, one of whom fell by transgression, and betrayed his lord and master; and as a constant admonition to you always to persevere in the paths of honour, integrity, and truth, and as a perpetual memorial of the apostasy of Judas Iscariot, you are required by the rules of our Order to extinguish one of those tapers, and let it ever remind you that he who can basely violate his vow and betray his secret, is worthy of no better fate than Judas Iscariot.’

(The candidate extinguishes one of the tapers; the triangle is placed in the centre of the room, on which are twelve burning candles; between each candle stick a glass of wine; in the centre of the triangle is placed a coffin, on which are the Bible, skull and cross-bones.)

Another password is give, Golgotha.

Q. What followed? A. I then took the cup (the upper part of the human skull) in my hand, and repeated after the grand commander the following obligation, ‘This pure wine I now take in testimony of my belief in the mortality of the body and the immortality of the soul, and may this libation appear as a witness against me, both here and hereafter, and as the sins of the world were laid upon the head of the saviour, so may all the sins committed by the person whose skull this was be heaped upon my head, in addition to my own, should I ever knowingly or wilfully violate or transgress any obligation that I have heretofore taken, take at this time, or shall at any future period take, in relation to any degree of masonry, or order of knighthood. So help me God."

Q. What was this obligation called? A. The sealed obligation.

A. The grand commander then communicated to me the due guard, the penitent's pass, and the grand sign, grip and word of Knight Templar’s.

Q. Give the due-guard? (The sign is given by placing the end of the right thumb under the chin.)

Q. To what does it allude? A. To the penalty of my obligation; to have my head struck off and placed upon the highest spire in Christendom.

Q. Give the penitent's pass? A. It is given as before described; the word is Golgotha.

Q. Give the grand sign. (This sign is given by placing yourself in a situation representing the crucifixion of Christ.)

Q. To what does this sign allude? A. To the manner in which the saviour expired upon the cross, and expiated the sins of the world.

Q. Give the grip and word. (This grip is given by interlacing the fingers of the right and left hands of the candidate, which forms a cross.)

Q. What is the word? A. Immanuel. (The word is given at the time of giving the grip, and is the name of the grip.)

Q. What does the grip teach us? A. That as our fingers are thus strongly interlaced, so should the hearts of Knight Templar’s be firmly interlaced in friendship and brotherly love.

Q. What is the motto of our order? A. Rex regum, et Dominus dominorum.

Q. How do you translate it? A. King of kings, and Lord of lords.

Knights of the Christian Mark and Guards of the Conclave

Junior knight. ‘Some one knocks for admission, invincible knight.’

Invincible (knight). ‘See who it is and make report.’ Knight (goes to the door and reports). ‘One that is faithful in good works wishes admission here.’ Inv’. ‘What good works hath he performed?’ Knight. ‘He hath given food to the hungry, drink to the thirsty, and clothed the naked with a garment.’ Inv. ‘Thus far he hath done well, but there is still much for him to do. To be faithful in my house, saith the Lord, he should be filled with love for my people. If so, let him enter under the penalties of his symbolic obligation. He enters, makes signs until he arrives at the altar; there kneels.

Comment. Remember the central tenet of the Christian faith is salvation through grace / forgiveness, not salvation through good works. Again it is clear from this ritual that the Knights Templar did not practice the Christian faith.

VOW. ‘I, A. B., do promise and vow, with this same volume clasped in my hands, that I will keep secret the words, signs, tokens and grips of this order of knighthood from all but those knights of St. John of Jerusalem, who have shown a Christian disposition to their fellow men, are professors of the Christian faith, and have passed through the degrees of symbolic masonry; and that I will protect and support, as far as in me lies, the followers of the Lord Jesus Christ; feed them, if hungry, give them drink, if thirsty, if naked, clothe them with garments, teach them if ignorant and advise them for their good and their advantage. All this I promise in the name of the Father, of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; and if I perform it not, LET ME BE ANATHEMA MARANATHA!’ (accursed at the coming of the Lord.)

The invincible knight interlaces the fingers of his left hand with those of the candidate, who lays his right hand on his heart. The invincible knight draws his sword; the senior knight does the same; they cross them on the back of the candidate's neck, and the invincible knight says, ‘By virtue of the high power in me vested, by a bull of his holiness, Pope Sylvester, I dub you a knight of the Christian Mark, member of the Grand Council and Guard of the Grand Conclave.’

The invincible knight then whispers in his ear, ‘Tammuz Touliumeth’. The knights come to order, the senior knight takes his seat, the candidate continues standing, the conductor brings a white robe.

Knights of the Holy Sepulchre

To examine a Knight of the Holy Sepulchre, he holds up the first finger of the right hand, knight holds up the second; you then hold up the third, and he shuts up his first. This signifies three persons in one God.

The Holy and Thrice Illustrious Order of the Cross, called a Council

‘What then is your mark?’ Inductor says, ‘Baal, Sha- Lisha; ('Lord of the three') I am the Lord.’

The obligations of Thrice Illustrious Knights of the Cross

‘I swear to keep sacred my brother's secrets, both when delivered to me as such, and when the nature of the information is such as to require secrecy for his welfare.’

The Lodge of Perfection: Comprising the eleven Ineffable degrees of Masonry

Secret Master

Q. What is signified by the letter G in the centre of the blazing star? A. Glory, grandeur and gomez, or Gibber Hodihu.

Q. What is meant by these? A. By glory is meant God, by grandeur man who may be great by perfection; and Gibber Hodihu is a Hebrew word signifying thanks to God. It is said to have been the first word spoken by the first man.

Q. What is meant by the eye in our lodge? A. That secret masters should keep a careful watch over the conduct of the craft in general.

Q. What is your age? A. Three times 27, and accomplished 81.

Degree of Perfect Master

Q. Give me the pass-word. A. Accassia.

Q. To what does the word allude, etc. Give me the token and mysterious word. A. Token is that of the mark master, given on the five points of fellowship; the mysterious word Jeva (pronounced Je-vau).

Q. What was then done? A. The master invested me with the jewel and apron of this degree, and informed me that my jewel was designed to remind me, that as a perfect master, I should measure my conduct by the exact rule of equity.

Q. What is meant by the letters J. M. B. on the triangular stone? A. They are the initials of the three Hebrew words, Joshagn, Mawkoms, Bawheer, signifying ‘the elect sleeps in his place.’

Q. What is signified by the pyramids in the lodge? A. Pyramids were used by our Egyptian brethren, for Masonic purposes. Being built on rocks, they shadow forth the durability of masonry. Their bases were four-cornered, their external surfaces equilateral triangles, pointing to the four cardinal points. The pyramidal form is also intended to remind us of our mortality. Its broad base represents the commencement, and its termination in a point, the end of human life.

Comment. These are very questionable interpretations. The pyramids are more widely accepted as representing the earth itself (The Great pyramid) and the rays of the sun. Some at least were almost certainly used for initiations but initiations based on sun religions where the initiate becomes the sun as the pharaoh did (e.g. ‘Tut-ankh-amun’ – ‘the living image of the sun’). These initiations were not part of military orders such as the Templar’s.

Intimate Secretary

Q. Give me the signs? A. The first alludes to the penalty made by clenching the right hand, and drawing it from the left shoulder to the right hip. The second is the one made at openings by guards.

Q. Give me the token? A. Made by joining right hands, and turning them downwards thrice, saying, the first time, Berith - the second time, Nedir - and the third time, Shelemoth.

Q. Give me the pass-words? A. Joabert, response Terbel. The first is the name of the listener; the second of the captain of the guards.

Q. Give me the mysterious word? A. Jeva (pronounced Je- vau).

Provost and Judge

Q. What was that form? A. I was conducted by the master of ceremonies to the southwest corner of the middle chamber, between the wardens, and caused to kneel on my right knee and say Beroke.

Q. What answer was given to that? A. The thrice Illustrious said Kumi.

Q. What do these words signify? A. The first signifies to kneel, the last, to rise.

The obligation of this degree:

Q. Repeat that obligation. A. Same as perfect master, with the addition that I will justly and impartially decide all matters of difference between brethren of this degree, if in my power so to do, under penalty of being punished as an unjust judge, by having my nose severed from my face. So help me, etc.

Q. What followed? A. The thrice illustrious gave me the signs, tokens and words of this degree.

Q. Give me the signs? A. Put the two first fingers of your right hand to the right side of your nose, the thumb under the chin, forming a square.

Q. Give me the token? A. Clench the three first fingers of the right hand over the thumb, and join hands by interlacing the little fingers.

Q. Give me the password? A. Jev (pronounced Jo).

Q. Did you perceive anything more? A. I saw the letters I. H. S. with the sprig of cassia.

Q. What is meant thereby? A. Imitate Hiram's silence, and justice, humanity and secrecy, which are designed to teach provost and judge, that while their decisions are just, they should be tempered with humanity, or mercy, and that all differences which may arise among the craft, should be kept secret from the world.

Intendant of the Buildings (or I B)

Q. Password? A. Bonahim (pronounced Bo-nau-heem).

Q. What followed? A. I received the signs, tokens and words of this degree.

Q. Give me the signs. A. Interlace the fingers, and place the hands over the eyes, alluding to penalty; second sign is that of grief, made like fellow craft's, with left hand on the left hip.

Q. Give me the token? A. Take hold of each other by the right wrists with the right hand.

Q. Give me the password. A. Bonahim.

Q. What does that word signify? A. Builders.

Q. Give me the words. A. Achard, jenok (pronounced yo-kayn).

Q. Give me the mysterious word. A. Jah (pronounced yaw).

Q. What is meant by the letters B. A. J. in the triangle which you wear? A. They are the initials of the password and words of this degree.

Q. What followed? A. I was directed to salute the senior warden as an Intendant of the Buildings, and return to the east for further instruction.

Second Section

Question. What did you see in the lodge? Answer. A triangle enclosing a circle, having on its circumference the letters J. A. I. N., and in its centre the letters J. J. J.

Q. What is signified by the circle in the triangle? A. The eternity of the powers of God, which hath neither beginning nor end.

Q. What is signified by the letters J. A. I. N.? A. They are the initials of the four Hebrew words, Jad, Ail, Jotsare, and Nogah, which are expressive of four attributes of the Deity: power, omnipresence, creation and splendour.

Q. What is signified by the letters J. J. J? A. Jah, Jokayn and Jireh, signifying ‘The Lord, the creator seeth.’

Q. What else did you see? A. A blazing star with five beams, in the centre of which appeared the letter J.

Q. What is signified by the five beams? A. The five equal lights of masonry, the Bible, the square, the compass, the key and the triangle.

Q. What is signified by the letter J.? A. It is the initial of the ineffable name, as known by us.

Q. Are you in darkness? A. No, the blazing star is my guide.

Q. What is your age? A. 27, or 5, 7 and 15.

Q. To what do those three numbers allude? A. To the five chiefs of the five orders of architecture, to seven cubits, which was the breadth of the golden candlestick with seven branches, and the fifteen fellow crafts who conspired against the life of our grand master, Hiram Abiff.

Comment. As stated, Hiram Abiff didn’t actually exist. He is almost certainly a mythical figure. If the Knights Templar were a Christian order following the Christian religion, why not simply use Jesus as their ‘grand master’?

Elected Knights of Nine

The obligation of this degree; the companies all standing 'round me with their poniards as if going to stab me.

Q. Repeat that obligation? A. Same as in perfect master. Under penalty of being stabbed in my head and in my heart. So help, etc.

Q. What followed? A. The most potent gave me the sign, token and words of this degree.

Q. Give me the sign? A. Clap your right hand first to your head and then to your heart.

Q. Give me the token? A. Grasp the thumb of your brother's right hand, both clenching the fingers and extending the thumb of the hand that is uppermost.

Q. To what does that token allude? A. The eight fingers and extended thumb allude to the eight and one elect; the one to Joabert, who left his eight companions, and went alone in search of,.. etc.

Q. Give me the pass-words? A. Rawkam and Akirop.

Q. What is the word? A. Bugelkal, who was chief of the tabernacle.

Q. Give me the mysterious word? A. Jeva (pronounced Je- vau).

Second Section

Question. Give me the history of this degree? Ans. After the death of Hiram Abiff, the three ruffians who had been apprehended having made their escape, a great assembly of masters had sat, etc., he had only time to pronounce Naukam, which signifies, ‘vengeance is taken’, and expired.

Joabert being extremely fatigued, refreshed himself at the spring which he found in the cavern, and then slept until he was awakened by the other eight who arrived shortly after.

On beholding what Joabert had done, they all exclaimed Naukam. Joabert then severed the head from the body, divided the body into four quarters, which were burnt to ashes, and the ashes scattered to the four winds of heaven. Joabert then taking the head, etc., again reconciled. Solomon then ordered the head to be placed on the east pinnacle of the temple.

Q. What was the name of the assassin? A. Jubelum Akirop.

Q. From what number were the nine elect chosen? A. Ninety nine.

Q. Where was the assassin found? A. In a cavern, near the coast of Joppa.

Q. How did the nine elect travel? A. By dark and intricate roads, which often obliged them to cross their legs, and this is the reason why the nine elect sit in this manner in the chapter.

Q. What is meant by the dog you saw on the carpet in the lodge? A. The dog of the stranger, through whose sagacity Akirop was discovered.

Q. What does the colour black denote in this degree? A. Grief.

Q. What is your age? A. Eight and one, accomplished.

Masters Elected of Fifteen

Q. What was that due form? A. I was conducted to the altar, and caused to make fifteen steps in a triangular form, which brought me again to the altar, when the most potent ordered me to kneel, and thus addressed me: ‘My brother, the elected masters here present, wish me to admit you to this degree; will you take the obligation appertaining to the same?’ which being answered in the affirmative, I took the obligation.

Q. Repeat that obligation? A. Same as perfect master. Under penalty of having my body cut open perpendicularly, and my head cut off and placed on the highest pinnacle in the world. So help me, etc.

Q. What did the most potent then communicate to you? A. He gave me the signs, words and token of this degree.

Q. Give me the signs? A. Hold the thumb of the right hand at the bottom of the belly, and move it perpendicularly upwards. The second sign that of the Entered Apprentice, with the fingers clenched.

Q. Give me the token? A. Join left hands.

Q. Give me the password? A. Eleham.

Q. Give me the mysterious word? A. Jevah (pronounced Je- vau).

Illustrious Knights Elected

Question. Are you an Illustrious Knight elected? Answer. My name will inform you.

Q. What is that name? A. Payrawsh Bawheer, or Illustrious Knight elected.

Q. How were you admitted? A. I was hoodwinked and conducted by the master of ceremonies to the door of the chapter, where he gave twelve distinct knocks.

Q. Obligation? A. Same as perfect master. Under penalty of having my hands nailed to my breast. So help, etc.

Q. What was then communicated to you? A. The most potent removed the bandage, and gave me the sign. Cross hands on breast; it alludes to the penalty.

Q. Give me the token? A. Token of Intimate Secretary, with left hand on brother's heart.

Q. Give me the password? A. Emun.

Q. What does that word signify? A. Truth.

Q. Give me the mysterious word? A. Joha (pronounced Yo- hay).

Q. Of what was the symbolic offering presented to you at your initiation composed? A. Of flour, milk, wine and oil.

Q. What did they represent? A. Flour represents goodness, the milk gentleness, the wine strength or fortitude, and the oil light and wisdom, qualities which distinguished Hiram Abiff, and should distinguish every illustrious Knight.

Q. How were the illustrious knights employed at the erection of the temple? A. They had command over the twelve tribes, and by their strict attention promoted peace and harmony, and animated the labourers with cheerfulness.

Q. What was the intention of Solomon in instituting this degree? A. To reward the zeal, etc., and also by their preferment to make more.

I received the obligation of a Grand Master Architect:

Q. Repeat the obligation? A. Same as perfect master. Under the penalty of having my left hand cut in twain. So help, etc.

Q. What then followed? A. I was then addressed by the most potent.

Q. What then followed? A. The most potent gave me the signs, words and tokens of this degree.

Q. Give me the sign? A. Make the motion of writing in the left hand, also alluding to penalty.

Q. Give me the token? A. Interlace the last finger of the right hand, so as to form a square and place the left hand on each other's right shoulder.

Q. Give me the password? A. Rab-kuam.

Q. What does it signify? A. Grand master architect.

Q. Give me the mysterious word? A. Jehovah (pronounced Ye-ho-wah).

Knights of the Ninth Arch


Q. What followed? A. We were conducted back to the anti-chamber, when the nine masters entered and thus addressed us: ‘My brethren, our most potent master requests grand master architects, Joabert, Stokin and Gibulum to attend in the audience chamber,’ whereupon we were introduced into the presence of Solomon, who thus addressed us: ‘My brethren, you know that in digging for a foundation for the temple, we found the ruins of an ancient edifice. Among the ruins, we have already discovered much treasure which has been deposited in the secret vault. Are you willing to make further researches among the ancient ruins, and report to us your discoveries?’


Penalty: .. under penalty of being crushed under the ruins of a subterraneous temple. So help, etc.

Q. What followed? A. The most potent gave me the signs, token and words of this degree.

Q. Give me the sign? A. Made by kneeling on the left knee, the right hand on the back, the left raised above the head, the palm upward, the body leaning forward, alluding to the penalty.

Q. Give me the token? A. Being in the last mentioned position, token is made by raising each other from the same, by interlacing the fingers of the left hand.

Q. How many passwords are there? A. One for each arch.

Q. Give them to me? A. 1st, Jov; 2nd, Jeho; 3rd, Juha; 4th, Havah; 5th, Elgibbor; 6th, Adonai; 7th, Joken; 8th, Eloah; 9th, Elzeboath.

Q. Give me the grand word? A. Gibulum ishtov.

Q. What does that signify? A. Gibulum is a good man.

Grand Elect, Perfect, and Sublime Mason


Question. What are you? Ans. I am three times three, the Perfect's number of eighty-one, according to our mysterious numbers.

Q. Explain that? A. I am a perfect grand elect and sublime mason; my trials are finished, and it is now time I should reap the fruits of my labour.

Q. Where were you made a grand elect mason? A. In a place not enlightened by the sun nor moon.

Q. Where was that place situated? A. Under the sanctum sanctorum.. Arch, which brought me to the door of the ante-chamber leading to the sacred vaults, where I gave three distinct knocks.

Q. How were they answered? A. By three from within.

Q. What was said to you? A. Who comes there?

Q. Your answer? A. A knight of the ninth arch, who wishes to be admitted into the sacred vault.

Q. What was then said to you? A. I was directed to give the pass; when I did I was permitted to pass to the second door of the ante-chamber, where I gave three and five knocks, which were answered by three and five and seven from within, and the pass-word demanded as before, which I gave, and was permitted to pass to the door of the sacred vault, where I gave three, five, seven and nine distinct knocks.

(NOTE. These knocks are answered from within by the junior and senior wardens, and most perfect; and most perfect says, ‘Brother junior warden, see who knocks there in the manner of a perfect grand elect and sublime mason.’)

Q. To what do these knocks allude? A. The three knocks signify the age of the Entered Apprentice, and the number of the Grand Marshal Architects who penetrated the bowels of the earth. The five allude to the age of the Fellow Craft and the number of the Grand Elect Perfect and Sublime Masters who placed the sacred treasure upon the pedestal of beauty.

Q. What are their names? A. Solomon, Hiram, King of Tyre, Gibulum, Joabert, and Stokin. The seven allude to the age of the Master Mason, and to Enoch who was the seventh from Adam. The nine represent the age of the Perfect Grand Elect and Sublime Mason, and the nine guards of the arches.

Q. How were these knocks answered? A. By three, five, seven and nine from within.

Q. What followed? A. I was asked, ‘Who comes there?’

Q. Your answer? A. A knight of the ninth arch, who is desirous of being admitted into the sacred vault and arriving at perfection.

Q. What followed? A. The pass was demanded, which I gave and was ordered to wait until the most perfect in the east had been informed of my request and his answer returned.

Q. What was his answer? A. Let him be introduced in ancient form.

Q. Are you a grand master architect? A. I know the use of the mathematical instruments.

Q. Give me, etc. Are you a knight of the ninth arch? A. I have penetrated through the bowels of the earth, through nine arches, and have seen the brilliant triangle.

The three signs, three tokens, the three pass-words and the three grand words of this degree:

Q. Give me the signs? First sign made like master mason's, with hands clenched.

Q. To what does this sign allude? A. To the penalty of the obligation. Second sign: bring your right hand upright, the palm outwards to guard your left cheek, your left hand supporting your elbow, then guard your right cheek with left hand, etc.

Q. To what does that sign allude? A. To the manner in which Moses guarded his eyes from the light of the burning bush, from which the Almighty revealed to him his true name. Third sign is that of surprise: raise both hands as high as the shoulders, and step back with the right foot.

Q. To what does this sign allude? A. To the attitude of Solomon and Hiram, when the sacred treasure was first produced.

Q. Give me the first token? First token same as Intimate Secretary, giving the words Berith, Neder, Shelemoth.

Q. What do those signify? A. Alliance, Promise and Protection.

Q. To what do they allude? A. To the alliance of Moses and Aaron, of Solomon and Hiram, King of Tyre. The promise made by the Almighty to the ancient patriarchs that the true pronunciation of his name should be revealed to their posterity, and the perfection attained when this promise was fulfilled.

Q. Give me the second token? Pass from master's grip, and seize his right arm above the elbow, and place your left hand on his right shoulder.

Q. Give me the third token? With your left hand seize your brother's right elbow, and with your right hand, his right shoulder.

Q. Give me the three passwords? A. First, master mason's; second, elhanon; third, fellow craft's, repeated thrice.

Q. Give me the three grand words? A. First, Gibulum; second, Eh-yeh-asher-eh-yeh.

Q. What does that word signify? A. I am what I am. Third, El-hod-dihu kaw- lu.

Q. What does that word signify? A. God be praised, we have finished it.

Q. What followed? A. The most perfect caused me to pronounce the mysterious word of this degree.

Q. Pronounce it? A. I cannot but once in my life.

Q. How will you then give it? A. * * * * A Hebrew pronunciation of God.

‘The true pronunciation of the name was revealed to Enoch, Jacob and Moses, and on that account are not named in this enumeration. The perfect number is thus formed: The number of corrupted words is 9. The ages of masonry, 3, 5, 7, 9 - 24, multiplied by 3, the number gotten who discovered Tunsune (noticed in the degree of the knight of the ninth arch), gives the product 72; to this add 9, the number of corrupted words, the amount is 81.

The mysterious words which you received in the preceding degrees, are all so many corruptions of the true name (of God) which was engraved on the triangle of Enoch. In this engraving the vowel points are so arranged as to give the pronunciation which you have just received (Yow-ho). This word, when thus pronounced, is called the ineffable word, which cannot be altered as other words are, and the degrees which you have received are called on this account, ineffable degrees. This word you will recollect was not found until after the death of Hiram Abiff, consequently the word engraved by him on the ark is not the true name of God.’

Q. What then followed? A. The most perfect gave me the secret characters of this degree, and then invested me with the jewels, apron and girdle of this degree, and I was again addressed: ‘I now with the greatest pleasure salute you’, etc.

The Philosophical lodge; or, The Key of Masonry: being the degree of Knights Adepts of the Eagle or Sun

This distance between good and evil with the Divinity, cannot be more justly and clearly compared than by a circle formed with a compass. From the points being reunited there is formed an entire circumference; and when any point in particular equally approaches or equally separates from its point, it is only a faint resemblance of the distance between good and evil, which we compare by the points of a compass forming a circle, which circle when completed is God.

Square. By the square we discover that God, who has made every thing equal, in the same manner that you are not able to dig a body in a quarry complete or perfect; thus, the wish of the Eternal in creating the world by a liberal act of his own, well foresaw every matter that could possibly happen in consequence thereof; that is to say, that every thing therein contained at the same time of the creation was good.

Comment. There are no square shapes in nature.

Level. You have also seen a level, a plumb and a rough stone. By the level you are to learn to be upright and sincere, and not to suffer yourself to be drawn away by the multitude of the blind and ignorant people; to be always firm and steady to sustain the right of the natural law, and the pure and real knowledge of that truth which it teacheth.

Perpendicular and rough stone. By these you ought to understand that the perpendicular man is polished by reason, and put censure away by the excellence of our master.

Tressle board. You have seen the tressle board, to draw plans on. This represents the man whose whole occupation is the art of thinking, and who employs his reason in that which is just and reasonable.

Cubic stone. You have seen the cubic stone, the moral of which, and the sense you ought to draw from it is to rule your actions, that they might be equally brought to the sovereign good.

Pillars. The two pillars teacheth you that all masons ought to attach themselves firmly to become an ornament to the order, as well as to its support; as the pillars of Hercules formerly determined the end of the ancient world.

Comment. What has Hercules got to do with a supposedly Christian order?

Blazing star. You have seen the blazing star, the moral sense of which is, ‘a true mason perfecting himself in the way of truth,’ that he may become like a blazing star which shineth equally during the thickest darkness; and it is useful to those that it shineth upon, and who are ready and desirous of profiting by its light.

Pyramid. The pyramid represents the true mason who raises himself by degrees, till he reaches heaven, to adore the sacred and unalterable name of the eternal supreme.

Key. The key demonstrates that you have already obtained a key to our knowledge, and part of our mysteries; and if you behave with equity, fervour and zeal to your  brothers, you will arrive shortly to the knowledge and meaning of our society, and this indicates the reason of the balance.

If I fail in this my obligation, I consent for all my brethren, when they are convinced of my infidelity, to seize me, and thrust my tongue through with a red-hot iron; to pluck out both my eyes, and to deprive me of smelling and hearing; to cut off both my hands, and to expose me in that condition in the field, to be devoured by the voracious animals; and if none can be found, I wish the lightning of heaven might execute on me the same vengeance. O God, maintain me in right and equity. Amen. Amen. Amen.

Sign: Place the right hand flat upon the heart, the thumb forming a square. The answer, raise the hand, and with the index point to heaven. This is to show that there is but one God, the source of all truth.

Token: Take in your hands those of your brother, and press them gently. Some knights in addition to this, kiss the forehead of the brother, saying ‘Alpha,’ to which he answers, ‘Omega.’

Sacred word: ‘Adonai.’ This word is answered by ‘Albra,’ or ‘Abbraak,’ which is rendered ‘a king without reproach.’ Some contend that this word should be written ‘Abrah.’

Password: ‘Stibium’ (antimony). By this is intended as among the hermetic philosophers, ‘the primitive matter whence all things are formed.’ To this password some add the following: ‘Helios’, ‘Mene’, ‘Tetragrammaton’.

After these are given, the candidate goes 'round and gives them to every one, which brings him back to father Adam. He then sits down with the rest of the brethren, and then brother Truth gives the following explanation of the Philosophical Lodge:

Sun. The sun represents the unity of the Eternal supreme, the only grand work of philosophy.

3. S. S. S. The 3 S. S. S. signify the ‘Stiletto, Sidech, Solo, or the residence of the sovereign master of all things.

Three candlesticks. The three candlesticks show us the three degrees of fire.

Four triangles. The four triangles represent the four elements.

Seven planets. The seven planets design the seven colours that appear in their original state, from whence we have so many different artificial ones.

Seven cherubims. The seven cherubims represent the seven metals: viz, gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, tin and quicksilver.

Conception in the moon. The conception, or woman, rising in the moon, demonstrates the purity that matter subsists of, in order to remain in its pure state unmixed with any other body, from which must come a new king, and a revolution or fullness of time filled with glory whose name is Albra.

Holy spirit. The Holy Spirit, under the symbol of a dove, is the image of the universal Spirit, that gives light to all in the three states of nature; and on the animal, vegetable and mineral.

Entrance to the temple. The entrance of the temple is represented to you by a body, because the grand work of nature is complete as gold, potable and fixed.

Globe. The globe represents the matter in the primeval state; that is to say, complete.

Caduceus. The caduceus represents the double mercury that you must extract from the matter; that is to say, the mercury fixed, and from thence is extracted gold and silver.

Stibium. The word stibium signifies the antimony, from whence by the philosophical fire, is taken an alkali which we empty in our grand work. End of the philosophical explanation.

Moral Lodge

Q. Pray tell me what is that mysterious and formidable name? A. I cannot unfold the sacred characters in this manner, but substitute in its place the grand word of (represented by the Hebrew consonants Jod, He, Vau, He.)

..the Council of the Knights of the Sun is closed by seven knocks.

Princes of Jerusalem

.. all this I promise and swear, under the penalty of being stripped naked, and having my heart pierced with a poniard. So help me God. Amen! Amen! Amen!

The most equitable raises the candidate, and gives him the following signs, tokens and words:

First sign. Extend the right arm horizontally at the height of the shoulder. This is termed the sign of command.

First token. Each places his left hand on his left hip, and the right hand on his brother's left shoulder.

Second token. Join left hands, placing the thumb on the second joint of the little finger; with the thumb strike five times on that joint.

Password. ‘Tebeth.’ The name of the Jewish month in which the ambassadors entered Jerusalem.

Sacred word. ‘Adar.’ The name of the month in which thanks were given to God for the completion of the temple. In some councils the following sign is given, viz.

Present yourself before your brother with your sword advanced, and your left hand resting on your hip, as if to commence a combat. He will answer the sign by extending his arm at the height of the shoulder, the right foot forming a square with the toe of the left.

The march. Five steps on the diagonal of the square towards the throne.

Age. The age of a Prince of Jerusalem is 5 times 15.

‘I decorate you with a yellow sash, to which is attached a gold medal. The 'balance' on it is to admonish you to make equity and justice your guides. The 'hand of justice' is a mark of your authority over the people. The 'emblems' of the 'apron' with which I now invest you, have reference to the works and virtues of masons, and to your duty in the high office with which you are invested. As Princes of Jerusalem, you will assemble in two chambers of the temple. Be just, merciful and wise.’

Knights of the East and West

Form of the Grand Council. The Grand Council of Knights of the East and West, must be hung with red and sprinkled with gold stars. In the east of the council chamber must be a canopy, elevated by seven steps, supported by four lions and four eagles, and between them an angel or seraphim with six wings. On one side of the throne there must be a transparent painting of the sun, and on the other side one of the moon; below them is stretched a rainbow.

A full grand council must be composed of twenty four Knights.

The Venerable Master is called ‘Most Puissant’; the wardens and the twenty one other brethren are called ‘Respectable Ancients.’ If there are more brethren present, they are styled ‘Respectable Knights,’ and are placed north and south, behind the small canopies.

..the secrets of this degree which are now about to be communicated to me, under the penalty of not only being dishonoured, but to consider my life as the immediate forfeiture, and that to be taken from me with all the tortures and pains to be inflicted in manner as I have consented to in my preceding degrees. I further promise and solemnly swear that I never will fight or combat with my brother knights, but will at all times, when he has justice on his side, be ready to draw my sword in his defence, or against such of his enemies who seek the destruction of his person, his honour, peace, or prosperity; that I never will revile a brother, or suffer others to reflect on his character in his absence.’

Q. ‘Do you know the reason why the ancients have a long white beard?’ Candidate. ‘I do not, but I presume you do.’

S. W. ‘They are those who came here, after passing through great tribulation and having washed their robes in their own blood; will you purchase such robes at so great a price?’

Candidate. ‘Yes I am willing.’ The wardens then conduct him to the basin, and bare both his arms; they place a ligature on each, the same as in performing the operation of blood letting. Each warden being armed with a lancet, makes an incision in each of his arms, just deep enough to draw a drop of blood, which is wiped on a napkin and shown to the brethren.

The junior warden gives him the sign, token and words, as follows:

Sign. Look at your right shoulder, it will be answered by looking at the left shoulder. One says, ‘Abaddon,’ the other ‘Jubulum.’

First token. Place your left hand in the right hand of your brother, who will cover it with his left; both at the same time look over their right shoulder.

Second token. Touch your brother's left shoulder with your left hand; he replies by touching your right shoulder with his right hand.

Sign for entering the lodge. Place your right hand on the brother's forehead (i.e. the Tyler's), he will do the same.

Password. ‘Jubulum,’ or, according to some, ‘Perignan’ and ‘Gadaon.’

Sacred word. ‘Abaddon.’

Origin of this degree. When the knights and princes were embodied to conquer the Holy land, they took a cross to distinguish them, as a mark of being under its banners; they also took an oath to spend the last drop of their blood to establish the true religion of the most high God.

Peace being made, they could not fulfil their vows, and therefore returning home to their respective countries, they resolved to do in theory what they could not do by practice, and determined never to admit or initiate any into their mystic ceremonies, but those who had given proofs of friendship, zeal and discretion.

They took the name of Knights of the East and West, in memory of their homes and the place where the order began; and they have ever since strictly adhered to their ancient customs and forms. In the year 1118, the first Knights, to the number of eleven, took their vows between the hands of Garimont, Patriarch and Prince of Jerusalem, from whence the custom is derived of taking the obligation in the same position.

Q. How were you received? A. By water and the effusion of blood.

Q. Explain this to me? A. A mason should not hesitate to spill his blood for the support of masonry.

Q. What are the ornaments of the grand council? A. Superb thrones, sun, more perfumed ointment and a basin of water.

Q. What is the figure of the draft? A. A heptagon within a circle.

Q. What is the representation of it? A. A man vested in a white robe, with a golden girdle 'round his waist, 'round his right hand seven stars, his head surrounded with a glory, a long, white beard, a two-edged sword across his mouth, surrounded by seven candlesticks, with these letters: H. D. P. I. P. R.

Q. What signifies the book with seven seals, which none but one can open? A. A lodge, or council of masons, which the most puissant alone has a right to convene and open.

Q. What is enclosed in the first seal? A. One bow, one arrow and one crown.

Q. What in the second? A. A two edged sword.

Q. What in the third? A. A balance.

Q. What in the fourth? A. Death's head.

Q. What in the fifth? A. A cloth stained with blood.

Q. What in the sixth? A. The power to darken the sun, and tinge the moon with blood.

Q. What in the seventh? A. Seven trumpets and perfumes.

Q. Explain these things to me? A. The bow, arrow and crown signifies that the orders of this respectable council should be executed with as much quickness as the arrow flies from the bow, and be received with as much submission as if it came from a crowned head, or the chief of a nation.

The sword, that the Council is always armed to punish the guilty. The balance is a symbol of justice. The skull is the image of a brother who is excluded from a lodge or council. This idea must make all tremble when they recollect the penalties they have imposed on themselves under the most solemn obligations!

The cloth stained with blood, that we should not hesitate to spill ours for the good of masonry. The power of obscuring the sun and tingeing the moon with blood, is the representation of the power of the superior councils, in interdicting their works, if they are irregular, until they have acknowledged their error, and submitted to the rules and regulations of the craft established by the grand constitutions.

The seven trumpets, signify that masonry is extended over the surface of the earth, on the wings of fame and supports itself with honour.

Sovereign Princes, Masters Advitiam, or Venerable Grand Masters of all Symbolic Lodges

The grand master represents Cyrus Artaxerxes (the Masonic name of Cambyses), wearing his royal ornaments, and a large blue and yellow ribbon crossing each other.

First sign. Form four squares thus: with the fingers joined, and the thumb elevated, place your right hand on your heart (this forms two squares). Place the left hand on the lips, the thumb elevated so as to form a third square; place the heels so as to form a square with the feet.

Second sign. Place yourself on your knees, elbows on the ground, the head inclined towards the left.

Third sign. Cross the hands on the breast, the right over the left, fingers extended, thumbs elevated and the feet forming a square.

Token. Take reciprocally the right elbow with the right hand, the thumb on the outside, the fingers joined, and on the inside; press the elbow thus four times, slip the hands down to the wrists, raising the three last fingers, and press the index on the wrist.

Sacred sword. ‘Razabassi,’ or ‘Razahaz Betzi-Yah.’

Passwords. ‘Jechson,’ ‘Jubellum,’ ‘Zanabosan.’ Some, however, give ‘Jehovah’ as the sacred word, and ‘Belshazzar’ as the pass-word.

Q. What is the reason why the number eighty one is held in such esteem among princes of masons? A. Because that number explains the triple alliance which the Eternal operates by the triple triangle, which was seen at the time Solomon consecrated the temple to God; and also that Hiram Abiff was eighty one years of age when he was murdered.

Q. Who destroyed the third temple? A. Tito, the son of the Emperor Vespasian. The masons, who with sorrow saw the temple again destroyed, departed from Rome, after having embraced the Catholic religion, and determined never to assist in constructing another.

Q. What became of those masons afterwards? A. They divided themselves into several companies, and went into different parts of Europe, but the greatest part of them went to Scotland, and built a town which they called Kilwinning; at this time there is a lodge there bearing the same name.

Q. What happened to them afterwards? A. Twenty seven thousand of the masons in Scotland determined to assist the Christian princes and knights, who were at that time at Jerusalem, in a crusade for the purpose of taking the Holy Land and city from the infidels, who were then in possession of it; and they accordingly obtained leave of the Scottish monarch.

Q. What happened most remarkable to them? A. Their bravery and good conduct gained them the esteem and respect of all the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem. The general of that order and the principal officers, took the resolution of being admitted into the secrets of masonry, which they accordingly received; and in return they admitted them into their order.

Q. What became of those masons afterwards? A. After the crusade they returned and spread masonry throughout all Europe, which flourished for a long time in France and England; but the Scottish, to their great praise be it spoken, were the only people who kept up the practice of it.

Q. How came it again in vogue in France? A. A Scottish nobleman went to France and became a resident at Bordeaux, where he established a Lodge of Perfection, from the members of the Lodge in 1744; in which he was assisted by a French gentleman, who took great pleasure in all the Masonic degrees. This still exists in a most splendid manner.

Q. What means the fire in our Lodge? A. Submission, purification of morals and equality among brethren.

Q. What signifies the air? A. The purity, virtue and truth of this degree.

Q. What does the sign of the sun mean? A. It signifies that some of us are more enlightened than others in the mysteries of masonry; and for that reason we are often called Knights of the Sun.

Q. Why do you give the name of St. John to our Lodge? A. Formerly all the Lodges were under the name of Solomon's Lodge, as the founder of Masonry; but since the crusades we have agreed with the Knights Templars or Hospitallers, to dedicate them to St. John, as he was the support of the Christians and the new laws.

Prince of the Royal Secret

The Assembly of Princes is termed a ‘Consistory’.

Officers. The first officer represents Frederick II., King of Prussia; he is styled ‘Sovereign of Sovereigns’, ‘Grand Prince’, ‘Illustrious Commander in Chief’. The two next officers are styled ‘Lieutenant Commanders’. The fourth officer is the ‘Minister of State’, who acts as the orator. The fifth officer is the ‘Grand Chancellor’. Then the ‘Grand Secretary’, the ‘Grand Treasurer’, the ‘Grand Captain of the Guards’, a ‘Standard Bearer’, a ‘Grand Master Architect’ and two ‘Tylers’.

Place of meeting. This is to be a building at least two stories in height, situated on elevated ground in the open country. Three apartments on the second floor are necessary in this degree. In the first of these the guards are stationed. The second is used as a preparation room. The third is occupied by the members of the Consistory.

This last apartment is hung with black, sprinkled with tears, ‘death's heads’, ‘cross bones’, and ‘skeletons’. The throne is in the east, elevated by seven steps. On the throne is the chair of state, lined with black satin, flamed with red. Before the chair is a table covered with black satin, strewed with tears.

On this cloth in front is a ‘death's head’ and ‘cross bones’; over the ‘death's head’ is the letter I, and under the ‘cross bones’ is the letter M. On the table is placed a naked sword, a buckler, a sceptre, a balance and a book containing the statutes of the order.

In the West is placed another table covered with crimson, bordered with black and strewed with tears; on the front of this cloth are the letters N. K. M. K. in gold.

Opening and closing. The Sovereign of Sovereigns says, ‘Sal ix’. The Lieutenants reply, ‘Noni’. They then together say, ‘Tengu’. All give the sign.

The Sovereign of Sovereigns says: Let us imitate our Grand Master Jacques De Molay, Hiram Abiff, who to the last placed all his hopes in the Great Architect of the Universe; and pronounced the following words just as he passed from this transient life into eternal bliss: ‘Spes mea in Deo est’ (My hope is in God).

.. a ‘golden key’; wearing around his neck a golden collar, on which is engraved ‘515’.

Sign. Place the right hand on the heart; extend it forward, the palm downward; let it fall by the right side.

Sacred Words. Those of the Carpet, which are to be read backward 'round the circle from right to left, thus: One says ‘Salix’, to which the other replies ‘Noni’; both then repeat (by letters) the word ‘Tengu’.

Passwords. ‘Phual Kol’, which signifies ‘separated’; ‘Pharas Kol’, which signifies ‘reunited’; ‘Nekam Makah’, which signifies ‘to avenge’; each then letters the word ‘Shaddai’, which signifies ‘Omnipotent’.

Charge addressed to the candidate. My dear brother: The Saracens having taken possession of the Holy Land, those who were engaged in the Crusades not being able to expel them, agreed with Godfrey de Bouillon, the conductor and chief of the Crusaders, to veil the mysteries of religion under emblems, by which they would be able to maintain the devotion of the soldier, and protect themselves from the incursion of those who were their enemies, after the example of the Scriptures, the style of which is figurative.

Those zealous brethren chose Solomon's temple for their model. This building has strong allusions to the Christian church. Since that period they (masons) have been known by the name of master architect; and they have employed themselves in improving the law of that admirable master.

From hence it appears that the mysteries of the craft are the mysteries of religion. Those brethren were careful not to entrust this important secret to any whose discretion they had not proved. For this reason they invented different degrees to try those who entered among them; and only gave them symbolical secrets, without explanation, to prevent treachery and to make themselves known only to each other.

For this purpose it was resolved to use different signs, words and tokens, in every degree, by which they would be secured against cowans and Saracens. The different degrees were fixed first to the number of seven by the example of the grand architect of the universe, who built all things in six days and rested on the seventh. This is distinguished by seven points of reception in the master's degrees.

Enoch employed six days to construct the arches, and on the seventh, having deposited the secret treasure in the lowest arch, was translated to the abodes of the blessed.

Solomon employed six years in constructing his temple; and celebrated its dedication on the seventh, with all the solemnity worthy of the divinity himself. This sacred edifice we choose to make the basis of figurative masonry. In the first degree are three symbols to be applied. First, the first of the creation, which was only chaos, is figured by the candidate's coming out of the black chamber, neither naked nor clothed, deprived, etc.; and his suffering the painful trial at his reception, etc.

The candidate sees nothing before he is brought to light; and his powers of imagination relative to what he has to go through are suspended, which alludes to the figure of the creation of that vast luminous body confused among the other parts of creation before it was extracted from darkness and fixed by the almighty fiat.

Secondly, the candidate approaches the footstool of the master, and there renounces all cowans; he promises to subdue his passions, by which means he is united to virtue, and by his regularity of life, demonstrates what he proposes.

This is figured to him by the steps that he takes in approaching the altar; the symbolic meaning of which is the separation of the firmament from the earth and water on the second day of creation. (The charge proceeds by giving a figurative interpretation of the ceremonies, etc., of the first and second part of the third degree..)

In the Master's degree is represented the assassination of Hiram by false brethren. This ought to put us in mind of the fate of Adam, occasioned by perverseness in his disobeying his great and awful Creator.

The symbolic mystery of the death of Hiram Abiff represents to us that of the Messiah; for the three blows which were given to Hiram Abiff, at the three gates of the temple, allude to the three points of condemnation against Christ, at the High Priest's Caiaphas, Herod and Pilate.

It was from the last that he was led to that most violent and excruciating death. The said three blows with the square, gauge and gavel are symbols of the blow on the cheek, the flagellation and the crown of thorns.

The brethren assembled around the tomb of Hiram, is a representation of the disciples lamenting the death of Christ on the cross. The master's word, which is said to be lost, since the death of Hiram Abiff, is the same that Christ pronounced on the cross, and which the Jews did not comprehend, ‘Eli, Eli, lama sabacthani,’ ‘My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me! Have pity on and forgive my enemies.’

Instead of which words were substituted, M. B. N. (Mac-be-nac), which in Arabian signifies, ‘The son of the widow is dead.’

The false brethren represent Judas Iscariot, who sold Christ. The red collar worn by the grand elect perfect and sublime masons calls to remembrance the blood of Christ.

The sprig of cassia is the figure of the cross, because of this wood was the cross made.

Comment. Again, if Hiram Abiff is simply a mythical representation of Jesus, then as a supposedly Christian order, why not simply use the figure of Jesus in their rituals? The masons / Templar's didn’t do this because they secretly did not believe in or adhere to the Christian religion, and their outward allegiance to the Christian religion was a gross deception and a lie.

The captivity of the grand elect and sublime masons (i.e., by the Chaldeans), shows us the persecution of the Christian religion under the Roman emperors, and its liberty under Constantine the Great.

It also calls to our remembrance the persecution of the Templars, and the situation of Jacques De Molay, who, lying in irons nearly seven years, at the end of which our worthy grand master was burnt alive with his four companions, on the eleventh of March, 1314, creating pity and tears in the people, who saw him die with firmness and heroic constancy, sealing his innocence with his blood.

My dear brother, in passing to the degree of perfect master, in which you shed tears at the tomb of Hiram Abiff, and in some other degrees, has not your heart been led to revenge? Has not the crime of Jubelum Akirop been represented in the most hideous light?

Would it be unjust to compare the conduct of Philip the Fair to his, and the infamous accusers of the Templars, to the two ruffians who were accomplices with Akirop? Do they not kindle in your heart an equal aversion? The different stages you have travelled, and the time you have taken in learning these historical events, no doubt will lead you to make the proper applications; and by the degree of master elect and Kadosh, you are properly disposed to fulfil all your engagements, and to bear an implacable hatred to the knights of Malta, and to avenge the death of Jacques De Molay.

Comment. Revenge and hatred are clearly not Christian traits. The Christian religion is principally about forgiveness and love. Some British politicians often refer to terrorists as ‘full of hate’. When it comes to hatred and revenge, it seems that some British politicians should also look at the higher degrees of Freemasonry.

Sovereign Grand Inspector General

The number of inspectors of a kingdom or republic is not to exceed nine. They claim jurisdiction over all the ineffable and sublime degrees, and in reality form an aristocratic body, with power to appoint their own successors, and act as ‘Sovereigns of Masonry’.

Decorations of the Place of Meeting

The hangings are purple, embroidered with skeletons, death's heads and cross bones. Before the canopy is a transparent delta (equilateral triangle). In the middle of the room is a grand triangular pedestal, near which is seen a skeleton holding in his left hand the standard of the order, and in his right hand a poniard in the attitude of striking.

Above the door, or place of entrance, is the motto of the order, ‘Deus meumque jus.’ In the east is a chandelier of five branches; in the south is one of two branches; in the west is one of three; and in the north a single one.

Officers and Titles

The assembly is termed ‘Supreme Council’. The first officer, ‘Thrice Puissant Sovereign Grand Master’. He represents Frederick II. The second officer is termed ‘Sovereign Lieutenant Commander’. Besides these there is a ‘Treasurer of the Holy Empire’, an ‘Illustrious Grand Secretary of the Holy Empire’, an ‘Illustrious Master of Ceremonies’ and an ‘Illustrious Captain of the Guards’; in all, seven officers.

Dress. The Thrice Puissant Sovereign wears a crimson robe, bordered with white, a crown on his head and a sword in his hand. The Lieutenant Commander wears a ducal crown.

Sash. The sash is black, edged with gold, from left to right; at the bottom a rose of red, white and green. On the part crossing the breast is a delta, with rays traversed by a poniard and in the midst the figure “33”.

Jewel. A black double headed eagle holding a sword. His beak, claws and sword are of gold.

Passwords, signs, etc., as may from time to time be agreed upon.